Basic science or clinical research articles that meet any of the following criteria are suitable for submission:

1. Original articles that demonstrate biologically plausible negative, neutral or controversial research findings.

2. Original articles that show effects of compounds on disease models, either in vivo or in vitro, are contradictory to the expected outcome.

3. Original articles demonstrating previously published results in peer-reviewed journals could not be reproduced.

4. Review articles that critically evaluate and identify problems in established norms and offer possible solutions to the problem.

5. Review articles that challenge the current concepts in disease mechanisms (including etiology, genetics, physiology, pathology and molecular mechanisms), and offer possible alternate scientific explanations or hypotheses.

6. Commentaries on articles that had been published in this journal. To promote unbiased scientific discussion, the commentaries section is an opportunity for those who disagree with the controversial findings or views that had been published in this journal. These should be well-thought-out, well-referenced criticism of the article in question, not a personal attack on the authors. Commentaries will undergo independent peer review and sent to the author for correspondence of the article that is being criticised. After exchange between the authors through the editorial support staff, the commentary along with the response of the authors will be published. For pragmatic reasons, only one commentary per article will be published. For others, if necessary, a separate online platform for open discussion will be considered. Before writing a commentary, please contact [email protected].